This is from the EPIC Potsdam study in Germany, which looked at the association between membrane phospholipid composition, diet and type 2 diabetes risk.1 Read it and weep.
It looks like linoleic acid prevents diabetes after all. Time to shut down the blog, run out and buy some corn oil.
Remember what happened to the pigs who got extra PUFA in their diet? They got torpid, turned on De Novo Lipogenesis and all of the newly manufactured oleic acid diluted out the linoleic acid.
The superpower of modern lean pig breeds is linoleic acid accumulation
Modern American pigs have been selected for optimum lean growth and they are very resistant to obesity. I once had the distinct displeasure of raising a group of landrace hogs along with my mulefoot crosses. They all lived in the same pastures eating the same feeds. The mulefoot crosses packed on an inch and a half of nice firm backfat while the landrace hogs wound up with a half inch of soft, greasy backfat.
I have said that linoleic acid is the spark but torpor is the fire. Modern breeds of pig are flame retardant.
If pigs who are prone to obesity get enough PUFA, they switch on lipogenic genes and start cranking out oleic acid. Linoleic acid accumulates to a point, but once they start getting fat, oleic acid predominates.
When genetically FAT pigs are fed enough PUFA, their DI1600 goes up and up and their linoleic acid goes DOWN.2
|Low Omega 3 Soy Oil
Pigs who resist obesity accumulate linoleic acid forever. Pigs fed 39% sunflower seeds in their diet ended up with 54% linoleic acid in their fat. That is a little more than the linoleic acid content of corn oil.3
|Lean Pigs Fed 39% Sunflower Seeds
When genetically LEAN pigs are fed PUFA, their DI1600 goes down and down and their linoleic acid goes UP.3
|0% Sunflower Seeds
Lean pigs are all spark and no flame.
Diabetes In Humans
This divides the world into two types: those who accumulate linoleic acid and those who become torpid. If you accumulate linoleic acid you are unlikely to get diabetes. If you switch on torpor and the lipogenic genes, you will do de novo lipogenesis, dilute out the dietary linoleic acid with homemade oleic acid and get diabetes. Just like in pigs, the lean people are flame retardant.
The DI1600 IS associated with diabetes risk in actual, walking-around humans. Linoleic acid content is inversely associated. Quite strongly.
Test Your DI1600
The OmegaQuant Complete test can tell you your DI1600. When you get your results, divide palmitoleic acid (the first number in the cis-Monounsaturated Fatty Acids section) by palmitic acid (the second number in the Saturated Fatty Acids section) and multiply it by 100. The first time I took the test, before supplementing with Sterculia Oil, my DI1600 was a 12. Not a 1.2 – an actual 12. I was way off the chart.
- 1.Kröger J, Zietemann V, Enzenbach C, et al. Erythrocyte membrane phospholipid fatty acids, desaturase activity, and dietary fatty acids in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)–Potsdam Study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Published online October 27, 2010:127-142. doi:10.3945/ajcn.110.005447
- 2.Potu RB, Lu H, Adeola O, Ajuwon KM. Metabolic markers in Ossabaw pigs fed high fat diets enriched in regular or low α-linolenic acid soy oil. Nutrition & Metabolism. Published online 2013:27. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-10-27
- 3.Marchello MJ, Cook NK, Johnson VK, Slanger WD, Cook DK, Dinusson WE. Carcass Quality, Digestibility and Feedlot Performance of Swine Fed Various Levels of Sunflower Seed1. Journal of Animal Science. Published online May 1, 1984:1205-1210. doi:10.2527/jas1984.5851205x