Brad

Hydrogen Peroxide Flips the Switch

For background information on this post, start by reading the introduction to oixdation. Terms you should understand before reading this article are superoxide and ROS. Additionally, you should understand the basics of the human antioxidant system. Hydrogen Peroxide is the Signal Superoxide is a free radical which is produced during metabolism at the bottleneck in …

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Butter Causes a High Level of Available Energy 8 Hours After a Meal

When fat cells respond to insulin they take several actions in switching from fat burning mode to glucose burning and fat storing mode. These actions include: Turning off lipolysis – the process of releasing fats into the bloodstream as Free Fatty Acids which other cells can use energy Absorbing Glucose and beginning de no lipogenesis …

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Long Chain Saturated Fat Causes Fat Loss in Mice

If you’ve been reading along you know that by this point we’ve shown that long chain saturated fat consumption causes ROS production in the mitochondria which causes short term physiological insulin resistance. The ROS theory of obesity suggests that physiological insulin resistance should prevent fat storage in peripheral fat cells (adipocytes). I’ve been dancing around …

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The Amount of Polyunsaturated fat in the Modern American Diet Fattens up Mice Without Additional Calories

In this series we’ve discussed the fact that saturated fat oxidation leads to ROS production in the mitochondria which makes peripheral fat cells “physiologically insulin resistant” which prevents them from switching from fat burning to fat storage. We’ve shown that saturated fat reversibly induces insulin resistance in people in the short term and that a …

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Unsaturated Fat Prevents Physiological Insulin Resistance In Humans

This paper studied the effect of a ketogenic diet composed largely of saturated fat compared to one composed largely of unsaturated fat. Ketogenic diets are high in fat and low in carbohydrate and protein. Ketogenic diets are known to stimulate physiological insulin resistance that goes away after a few days of eating a carbohydrate rich …

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Saturated Fat Causes Physiological Insulin Resistance in Humans

In previous posts I have laid out the argument that metabolism of long chain saturated fat creates mitochondrial ROS which causes short term insulin resistance while the saturated fat is oxidized. Insulin tells the bodies cells to switch from fat metabolism to glucose metabolism and causes fat cells to absorb glucose, convert it to fat …

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Physiological Insulin Resistance

Let’s think about what happens in response to a starchy meal. Blood sugar rises and insulin is released. Insulin attaches to the insulin receptors on the cell membranes of muscle cells, fat cells, etc. The cells respond by moving a glucose transporter, GLUT4, into the cell membrane so that they can start importing glucose. Insulin …

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The Mitochondria

A mitochondria works like a battery. It maintains a voltage gradient across its inner-membrane. The outside of the membrane has a positive charge and the inside has a negative charge. Protons from the outside flow back through the membrane down the gradient, releasing energy, through a large cross-membrane protein complex called ATP synthase, which uses …

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Summary of The Introduction to Life in a Bottle

Oxidation (in a biological context) is the flow of electrons from elements like Hydrogen and Carbon to Oxygen Oxygen is very reactive. Chlorophyll took its electrons away and it would very much like to get them back. In metabolism – the oxidation of starch and fat – free radicals, notably superoxide, are produced from Oxygen. …

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Two Elegant Experiments Demonstrating that ROS is The Signal

If you’been reading through the Introduction to Fire in a Bottle series, I explained the concept of oxidation, discussed the oxygen catastrophe and its implications for evolution, I introduced our unlikely hero superoxide and then we met our bodies inbuilt antioxidant defense system. Along the way I introduced the key point that Reactive Oxygen Species …

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Meet Your Antioxidant System

In the previous post, we introduced our unlikely hero superoxide, a free radical. We also introduced peroxide and the term “Reactive Oxygen Species” (ROS), the term that refers collectively to superoxide and peroxide and others in the family of pro-oxidant molecules. We evolved to thrive in the presence of oxygen and ROS after the Great …

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Superoxide: An Unlikely Hero

When I took oncology at Cornell in the mid-90’s, the root cause of cancer was explained in the following way. Certain things – such as ionizing radiation from a nuclear explosion – cause free radical formation. The free radicals can damage the DNA, causing genetic mutations. When enough mutations accumulated in key genes affecting the …

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